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Definition of Civil Court | complaint definition civics

Definition of Civil Court By J.S. Nogara

A civil court is a court that handles noncriminal legal matters. In other words, it's for someone who has not been accused of violating the law. Rather, it's where private individuals or entities sue one another for either money or some other type of relief.

Types of Civil Courts

The term "civil court" encompasses various subcategories of courts. For example, family courts or surrogate's courts are civil courts. Each court has a particular area of jurisdiction. A family court will probably hear cases involving divorce, child support and custody and guardianship, while a surrogate's court will handle trusts and estate matters. Other types of civil courts are landlord and tenant courts (sometimes called "housing courts") and small-claims courts. Additionally, the United States Supreme Court is a civil court, with a few narrow exceptions.

Types of Relief Sought

In the civil court, the party suing another party is called the plaintiff, and the party being sued is the defendant. The plaintiff might be seeking money, also known as damages. Damages are usually the type of relief sought. However, the plaintiff might also be seeking to have a defendant take a particular course of action or stop doing something in particular. For example, a plaintiff might want a defendant to clean up his property or stop causing a nuisance by making loud noises. In such an instance, the relief is referred to as "equitable" relief.

What Happens in a Civil Case

A civil case is started by filing a summons and a complaint by the plaintiff. The summons and complaint must be served upon the defendant. In other words, the defendant receives notice of the lawsuit, the allegations against the defendant and the type of relief sought. Once the defendant is served, the defendant has a certain amount of time to file a response (usually referred to as a "responsive motion"). At this point, there are various types of motions a defendant can make. Every jurisdiction is different in what can and cannot be filed; thus, it is necessary to consult the particular laws of the jurisdiction and a civil attorney. After the initial phase of the civil case, there might be discovery, which is a fact-finding phase of the case. This part involves obtaining records and interviewing witnesses by depositions in order to obtain evidence to prove or disprove a case. However, the case might also be disposed of by a motion to dismiss. This is when an attorney will present arguments why the case should not be permitted to proceed.

Trial in Civil Court

If a case continues, a trial might occur. At a trial, the plaintiff and defendant have an opportunity to present their cases. Evidence might be submitted and witnesses might testify. Thereafter, a determination is made. Sometimes the case is determined by a judge, while other times the case is determined by a jury. The rules are determined by the jurisdiction where the case is held.

Settlement in a Civil Case

Frequently, while a case is pending, the case will be settled by the attorneys without proceeding to trial. In such an instance, the plaintiff and defendant will sign a settlement agreement, which is a voluntary action outlining what the plaint uqehcctq. mens moncler vest bloomingdale'siff and defendant will or will not do in order to resolve the matter out of court.

About the Author

J.S. Nogara began writing in 2000, publishing in legal texts, newspapers, newsletters and on various websites. Her credits include updating "New York Practice Guides: Negligence." She is a licensed attorney admitted to the New York State courts and the Federal Court, Southern District in New York. She has a B.S. from the University of Connecticut, a J.D. and an LL.M. degree.

complaint definition civics

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us digital millennium copyright act 1998 definition definitions - Civics report a problem civics (n.)

1. the social science of municipal affairs

civic (adj.)

1. applying to ordinary citizens as contrasted with the military "civil authorities"

2. of or relating to or befitting citizens as individuals "civil rights" "civil liberty" "civic duties" "civic pride"

3. of or relating or belonging to a city "civic center" "civic problems"

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Merriam Webster

Civics Civ"ics (?) , n. The science of civil government.

Civic Civ"ic (?) , a. [L.civicus, fr. civis citizen. See City .] Relating to, or derived from, a city or citizen; relating to man as a member of society, or to civil affairs.

Civic crown (Rom. Antiq.) , a crown or garland of oak leaves and acorns, bestowed on a soldier who had saved the life of a citizen in battle.

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definition (more) definition of Wikipedia

synonyms - Civics report a problem civic (adj.)

civil , civilian , local , municipal , political , urban

see also - Civics

civic (adj.)

↘ citify , urbanise , urbanize ↗ citizen , city ≠ army , military

phrases civic address  • civic center  • civic duty  • civic leader  • civic pride  • civic responsibility  • civic spirit

1975–76 Denver Spurs/Ottawa Civics season  • F.C. Civics Windhoek  • Forum of Civics  • Index of civics articles  • List of films based on civics books  • Mathematics, Civics and Sciences Charter School  • National Civics Bureau  • Ottawa Civics  • River Oaks Garden Club Forum of Civics

analogical dictionary  

science, scientific discipline [Hyper.]

social scientist [Dérivé]

factotum [Domaine]

FieldOfStudy [Domaine]

social science [Hyper.]

civics (n.) ↕


Integral Dictionary [Thème]

Descripteurs EUROVOC (fr) [Thème]

civics (n.) ↕


relatif à (fr) [Classe...]

borough; town; city [ClasseHyper.]

(conurbation; urban area; populated area) [Thème]

(master builder; structural engineer; architect; designer), (building; architecture; architectonics) [Thème]

(cathedral), (bishop), (council) [termes liés]

administrative district, administrative division, territorial division [Hyper.]

relatif à la ville (fr) [Classe]

(master builder; structural engineer; architect; designer), (building; architecture; architectonics) [termes liés]

city [Rel.App.]

civic (adj.) ↕


civilian [Dérivé]

army, military [Ant.]

military [Domaine]

NormativeAttribute [Domaine]

civilian [Similaire]

civic (adj.) ↕


national; commoner; burgher; citizen [ClasseHyper.]

voter [ClasseParExt.]

politics [Domaine]

CitizenryFn [Domaine]

citizenry, people [membre]

national, subject [Hyper.]

citizenship - citizenship [Dérivé]

alien, foreigner, noncitizen, outlander [Ant.]

politics [Domaine]

NormativeAttribute [Domaine]

citizen [Dérivé]

civic (adj.) ↕


relatif à (racine de FL) (fr) [Classe...]

national; commoner; burgher; citizen [ClasseHyper.]

voter [ClasseParExt.]

borough; town; city [ClasseHyper.]

(cathedral), (bishop), (council) [termes liés]

politics [Domaine]

CitizenryFn [Domaine]

citizenry, people [membre]

national, subject - administrative district, administrative division, territorial division [Hyper.]

citizenship - citizenship [Dérivé]

alien, foreigner, noncitizen, outlander [Ant.]

relatif à (fr) [Classe...]

citizen [Rel.Pr.]

city [Dérivé]

civic (adj.) ↕




↗ general education Wikipedia

Civics                     This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this article if you can; the talk page may contain suggestions.

Civics is the study of the theoretical and practical aspects of citizenship, its rights and duties; the duties of citizens to each other as members of a political body and to the government. [ 1 ] It includes the study of civil law and civil code, and the study of government with attention to the role of citizens ― as opposed to external factors ― in the operation and oversight of government. [ 1 ]

Contents 1 Traditions in civics 2 Civics and government 2.1 Examples of different types 3 Criticism of civic education 4 See also 5 References 6 External links   Traditions in civics

Within a given political or ethical tradition, civics refers to educating the citizens. The history of civics dates back to the earliest theories of civics by Confucius in ancient China and Plato in ancient Greece. In China also along with Confucianism developed the tradition of Legalism. These traditions in the East and in the West developed to an extent differently therefore, with bringing in the past different concepts of citizens rights and the application of justice, together with different ethics in public life. This was mainly valid before the translation of the Western legal tradition to Chinese which started in 1839 after which influence by Western tradition was brought to China, with periods of restoration of traditional Chinese law, influence by Soviet law; specific is the common ordinary language used in Chinese laws which has significant educational role.

  Civics and government

Of special concern are the choice of a form of government and (if this is any form of democracy) the design of an electoral system and ongoing electoral reform. This involves explicitly comparing voting systems, wealth distribution and the decentralization of political and legal power, control of legal systems and adoption of legal codes, and even political privacy — all seen as important to avoid social (civil) dystrophy [ 2 ] or a lapse into some undesirable state of totalitarianism or theocracy. Each of these concerns tends to make the process of governance different, as variations in these norms tend to produce a quite different kind of state. Civics was often simply concerned with the balance of power between say an aristocracy and monarchy—a concern echoed to this day in the struggles for power between different levels of rulers—say of the weaker nation-states to establish a binding international law that will have an effect even on the stronger ones. Thus world government is itself properly a civic problem. Also, it is the study of duties and rights of citizenship.

On smaller scales, modern human development theory attempts to unify ethics and small-scale politics with the urban and rural economies of sustainable development. Notable theorists including Jane Jacobs and Carol Moore argue that political secession of either cities or distinct bio regions and cultures is an essential pre-requisite to applying any widely shared ethics, as the ethical views of urban and rural people, different cultures or those engaged in different types of agriculture, are irreconcilably different. This extreme advocacy of decentralization is hardly uncommon, and leads to the minimal theory of civics – anarchism.

Civics refers not to the ethical or moral or political basis by which a ruler acquires power, but only to the processes and procedures they follow in actually exercising it.

Recently, the concept of global civics has also been suggested as a way of applying civics in the highly interdependent and globalized world of the 21st century. Many people feel that increasing knowledge and awareness of individual citizen's rights can enhance global political and economic understanding. Powerhouses such as the United States have been criticized for minimizing public civics education opportunities in the past several years.

  Examples of different types

Most civic theories are more trusting of public institutions, and can be characterizing on a scale from least (mob rule) to most (the totalitarian) degree of trust placed in the government. At the risk of extreme oversimplification, a historical view of civic theory in action suggests that the theories be ranked as follows:

Philosophy Description Example Ochlocracy (aka: Mob Rule) Trusting of the instincts and power of large groups—no consistent civics at all. [ 3 ] Lynching Anarchism No government or other hierarchy, a common ethical code enforced only by personal governance (self-rule) and voluntary association. [ 4 ] Anarchist Catalonia Minarchy A minimal hierarchy—e.g. sometimes said to include Eco-anarchism Libertarianism A philosophy based on the premise that all individuals are sovereign over their own lives and that personal freedom should be maximized as much as possible. Direct democracy Decisions made directly by the people without guidance or moral suasion, usually relying on multiple choices laid out by experts as advocated by Ross Perot Deliberative democracy Decisions made by locally grouped citizens obligated to participate in consensus decision making process as advocated by Ralph Nader Representative democracy A political class of elected representatives is trusted to carry out duties for the electors – these may be responsible to any group in society, or none, once elected United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, USA, France, Germany, India Technocracy Reliance on castes of bureaucrats and scientists to rule society, and define risk for the whole society – sometimes generalized into anticipatory democracy. Can be interpreted as leading to or including kleptocracy China Aristocracy General trust in one class in society to rule and protect, e.g. members of particular noble families that have worked for and/or defended the community across many generations (i.e. "old" money), upholding traditions, standards of living, art, culture, commerce, and defense. Not to be confused with plutocracy, where rule is based solely on financial wealth. Theocracy Government led by religious beliefs or culture. Theocracies are led by powerful religious figures and follow rules based on religious documents. Vatican City, Islamic Republic of Iran Constitutional monarchy A monarch, possibly purely symbolic and devoted to moral example, avoiding vesting such popularity in any less trustworthy political figure—typically tied to at least some deliberative institutions, and making the monarch a tiebreaker or mediator or coach United Kingdom, Spain, Japan, Thailand, Canada, and the Netherlands Absolute monarchy A monarchy who carries absolute power, with no requirement to answer to the legislature, judiciary, or the citizenry. Rule is generally hereditary. Saudi Arabia, Brunei, Oman Dictatorship A political or military ruler who has the powers of the monarch(people), but whose basis for rule is not hereditary, but based upon military or political power. Benito Mussolini, Napoleon Bonaparte, Adolf Hitler, Julius Caesar, Francisco Franco, Joseph Stalin, Fidel Castro, Seyed Ali Khamenei Note: examples are included only to help familiarize readers with the basic idea of the scale—they are not intended to be conclusive or to categorize these individuals other than the civics that they exercise or exemplify.   Criticism of civic education

Sudbury schools contend that values, social justice and democracy included, must be learned through experience [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] as Aristotle said: "For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them." [ 9 ] They adduce that for this purpose schools must encourage ethical behavior and personal responsibility. In order to achieve these goals schools must allow students the three great freedoms—freedom of choice, freedom of action and freedom to bear the results of action—that constitute personal responsibility. [ 10 ] The "strongest, political rationale" for democratic schools is that they teach "the virtues of democratic deliberation for the sake of future citizenship." [ 11 ] This type of education is often alluded to in the deliberative democracy literature as fulfilling the necessary and fundamental social and institutional changes necessary to develop a democracy that involves intensive participation in group decision making, negotiation, and social life of consequence.

  See also History of citizenship Index of civics articles Global civics   References ^ a b Frederick Converse Beach, George Edwin Rines, The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts and sciences, literature, history, biography, geography, commerce, etc., of the world , Volume 5, Scientific American compiling department, 1912, p.1 ^ The Russian Paradigm of Lacking Freedoms in the Context of the Global “Inversion” of Human Rights ^ "theocracy" Online Entomology Dictionary. 2001. Online Entomology Dictionary. ^ "Anarchy" Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online. ^ Greenberg, D. (1992), Education in America - A View from Sudbury Valley, "'Ethics' is a Course Taught By Life Experience." Retrieved June 25, 2010. ^ Greenberg, D. (1987), The Sudbury Valley School Experience, "Teaching Justice Through Experience." Retrieved June 25, 2010. ^ Greenberg, D. (1992), Education in America - A View from Sudbury Valley, "Democracy Must be Experienced to be Learned." Retrieved June 25, 2010. ^ Greenberg, D. (1987) Chapter 35, "With Liberty and Justice for All," Free at Last — The Sudbury Valley School. Retrieved June 25, 2010. ^ Bynum, W.F. and Porter, R. (eds) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations. Oxford University Press. 21:9. ^ Greenberg, D. (1987) The Sudbury Valley School Experience "Back to Basics - Moral basics." Retrieved June 25, 2010. ^ Curren, R. (2007) Philosophy of Education: An Anthology. Blackwell Publishing. p 163.   External links Look up civics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Annenberg Classroom The civics education site of the Annenberg Public Policy Center Civic Action Project A practicum for high school students in civics and government. iCivics Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's education site Center for Civic Education Promoting the Principles and Practice of Democracy – in their own words, "a worldwide online civic education community of civic educators, scholars, policymakers, civic-minded journalists, NGOs, and other individuals promoting civic education" Facing History and Ourselves Engaging students of diverse backgrounds in an examination of racism, prejudice, and antisemitism in order to promote the development of a more humane and informed citizenry From fallacious politics to sound civics An essay on discovering civics beyond politics. The Citizen's Guide to the U.S. Government – online tutorial that covers basic civics in the U.S. and ways that citizens can encourage politicians to address different issues Word List: Types of Government A Thinking Place       Social sciences

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A successor is a person or entity who takes over and continues the role or position of another. For example, in trust law, many grantors and their respective spouses act as the initial trustees of a revocable living trust. In this situation, they remain in control until they are incapacitated or die. Then pre-selected successor trustees are appointed in under the terms of the declaration of trust. Usually a spouse, family member or trusted friend are selected as successor trustees. A second successor is a person nominated to take over responsibilities of the first successor in the case of death or disability of the first successor.

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